Tumor progression is associated with distinct histopathological changes that are indicative for prognosis. The acquired ability of tumor cells to locally invade adjacent tissues is the first important step in the invasion-metastasis cascade. Two general strategies have been pursued in mice to investigate invasive tumor progression.
The JAK-STAT signaling pathway is an important pathway in malignant transformation. On the basis of these observations, JAK2 kinase inhibitors have been developed for clinical use, and ruxolitinib, a JAK2/JAK1 inhibitor is approved for primary myelofibrosis. More importantly, different JAK2 inhibitors have entered clinical trials for use in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), acute lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome patients.
A comprehensive review of the 71 reported cases of breast implant associated ALCL (iALCL) is presented indicating the apparent risk factors and main characteristics of this rare cancer. The average patient is 50 years of age and most cases present in the capsule surrounding the implant as part of the periprosthetic fluid or the capsule itself on average at 10 years post-surgery suggesting that iALCL is a late complication. The absolute risk is low ranging from 1:500,000 to 1:3,000,000 patients with breast implants per year. The majority of cases are ALK-negative, yet are associated with silicone-coated implants. The mechanism of tumorigenesis which is discussed in relation to chronic inflammation, immunogenicity of the implants and sub-clinical infection reamins to be determined. However, capsulotomy alone seems to be sufficient for the treatment of many cases suggesting the implants provide the biological stimulus whereas others require further treatment including chemo- and radiotherapy although reported cases remain too low to recommend a therapeutic approach.
The contribution of the innate immune system to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is under intensive investigation. While research in animal models has demonstrated that type I interferons (IFN-Is) protect from IBD, studies of patients with IBD have produced conflicting results concerning the therapeutic potential of IFN-Is. Now a team of researchers based in Vienna with a contribution of the LBI-CR have resolved this issue.
Recently Emilio Casanova and co-workers published their findings on growth hormone resistance in liver disease. Their work has now been released online by the Journal "Hepatology" and the findings were featured in Nature Reviews Gastroenterology by Claire Greenhill:
Together with the company Tissuegnostics, the pathologist Lukas Kenner and his colleagues have developed a software that is able to identify cancer cells in tissue sections and demonstrate the presence of specific biomarkers on cells. "The recently developed software offers, for the first time, the option of eliminating the so-called inter-observer-variability, which is the systematic variability of judgement among different observers," chief investigators Lukas Kenner and Helmut Dolznig explain.
The European Research Initiative on Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-related malignancies (ERIA) celebrated the twentieth anniversary of the discovery of ALK at its annual meeting in Monza on June 20-21, 2014. The meeting was attended by Prof Tom Look (Dana Faber Institute, Harvard), the co-discoverer of the fusion gene NPM-ALK in lymphomas, and Dr. Robert Ghelfi (Pfizer), who developed the first compound to inhibit ALK, crizotinib.
The annual review meeting of the LBI-CR was held on June 15 - 17, 2014. The researchers presented the recent scientific ouput to the scientific advisors and partners, who voiced their unanimous satisfaction about the quality of the research activities at the institute. Moreover, the scientific advisors appeared impressed with recent organisational developments, which include the appointment of the junior group leader Florian Grebien to the institute and the integration of three researchers into the partner universisties as endowed professors.
The chairman of the scientific advisory board, Tom Look (Dana Faber Institute, Harvard Medical School) discovered the proto-oncogene ALK, which is increasingly recognised as an important driver of cancer in a wide variety of tumors. He gave an interview to the daily "Der Standard", which is available below in German only.